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|Título:||British nuclear policy after the Cold War : 1991-2007|
|Data de Defesa:||2011|
|Resumo:||With the end of the Cold War, the strategic environment changed for London: the major concern for the UK during the Cold War－the threat from the Soviet Uniondisappeared and new threats such as nuclear proliferation or terrorism came to be recognized. In spite of this change of strategic context, the most notable characteristic of the British nuclear policy during the period from 1991 to 2007 was that no major changes were made. Since the end of World War II to 2007 the British basic nuclear policy was to retain its nuclear deterrent. The UK unilaterally reduced its nuclear forces to some extent after the Cold War but chose to keep its nuclear deterrent. There were a couple of occasions where a full discussion on the nuclear policy could have been made after 1991. The first opportunity was the 1997 Strategic Defence Review (SDR). The second opportunity was between 2006 and 2007. At the time the future of Trident was at stake. However, in both occasions, it was decided to retain nuclear weapons without having full or serious discussions. It is extremely difficult to explain why neither major changes nor full discussions were made on the British nuclear policy, because all the following factors were involved: peculiarity of nuclear weapons, the political role that the UK conceded to nuclear weapons, domestic political circumstances, British thinking on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, the threat from international terrorism, lack of interest of the people and cost effectiveness of nuclear weapons. These factors explain why London decided to keep its nuclear weapons and opted for modest changes in its nuclear policy. A different result would have required a very different view of about the role of nuclear weapons in British strategy and the international effectiveness of disarmament and non-proliferation issues. Until 2007 such a view did not exist in government, parliamentary and military circles in London. Britain, therefore, continues to be a nuclear power.|
|Aparece nas colecções:||IEP - Dissertações de Mestrado / Master Dissertations|
R - Dissertações de Mestrado / Master Dissertations
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