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|Título:||Phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols|
|Autor:||Harvey, Patricia J.|
Campanella, Bruno E.
Castro, Paula M. L.
|Citação:||HARVEY, Patrícia J....[et al] - Phytoremediation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Anilines and Phenols. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. ISSN 0944-1344. Vol. 9, n.º 1 (2002), p. 29-47|
|Resumo:||Phytoremediation technologies based on the combined action of plants and the microbial communities that they support within the rhizosphere hold promise in the remediation of land and waterways contaminated with hydrocarbons but they have not yet been adopted in large-scale remediation strategies. In this review plant and microbial degradative capacities, viewed as a continuum, have been dissected in order to identify where bottlenecks and limitations exist. Phenols, anilines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as the target classes of molecule for consideration, in part because of their common patterns of distribution, but also because of the urgent need to develop techniques to overcome their toxicity to human health. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the pollutant, the emerging picture suggests that plants will draw pollutants including PAHs into the plant rhizosphere to varying extents via the transpiration stream. Mycorrhiz.osphere-bacteria arid -fungi may play a crucial role in establishing plants in degraded ecosystems. Within the rhizosphere, microbial degradative activities prevail in order to extract energy and carbon skeletons from the pollutants for microbial cell growth. There has been little systematic analysis of the changing dynamics of pollutant degradation within the rhizosphere; however, the importance of plants in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the rhizosphere via fine roots, and of the beneficial effect of microorganisms on plant root growth is stressed. In addition to their role in supporting rhizospheric degradative activities, plants may possess a limited capacity to transport some of the more mobile pollutants into roots and shoots via fine roots. In those situations where uptake does occur (i.e. only limited microbial activity in the rhizosphere) there is good evidence that the pollutant may be metabolised. However, plant uptake is frequently associated with the inhibition of plant growth and an increasing tendency to oxidant stress. Pollutant tolerance seems to correlate with the ability to deposit large quantities of pollutant metabolites in the 'bound' residue fraction of plant cell walls compared to the vacuole. In this regard, k, particular attention is paid to the activities of peroxidases, laccases, cytochromes P450, glucosyltransferases and ABC trans- il porters. However, despite the seemingly large diversity of these B proteins, direct proof of their participation in the metabolism B of industrial aromatic pollutants is surprisingly scarce and little is known about their control in the overall metabolic scheme. ]] Little is known about the bioavailability of bound metabolites; however, there may be a need to prevent their movement into wildlife food chains. In this regard, the application to harvested plants of composting techniques based on the degradative capacity of white-rot fungi merits attention.|
|Versão do Editor:||The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com|
|Aparece nas colecções:||ESB - Artigos em revistas internacionais com Arbitragem / Papers in international journals with Peer-review|
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